A deliverable is any tangible outcome that is produced by the project. All projects create deliverables.
These can be documents, plans, computer systems, buildings, aircraft, etc. Internal deliverables are produced as a consequence of executing the project and are usually needed only by the project team. External deliverables are those that are created for clients and stakeholders.
Your project may create one or many deliverables.
Constraint [kuh n-streynt]
Constraints are limitations that are outside the control of the project team and need to be managed around.
They are not necessarily problems. However, the project manager should be aware of constraints because they represent limitations that the project must execute within. Date constraints, for instance, imply that certain events (perhaps the end of the project) must occur by certain dates.
Resources are almost always a constraint, since they are not available in an unlimited supply.
Client / Customers
The person or group that is the direct beneficiary of a project or service is the client / customer.
These are the people for whom the project is being undertaken (indirect beneficiaries are stakeholders). In many organisations, internal beneficiaries are called "clients" and external beneficiaries are called "customers," but this is not a hard and fast rule.
The critical path is the sequence of activities that must be completed on schedule for the entire project to be completed on schedule.
It is the longest duration path through the workplan. If an activity on the critical path is delayed by one day, the entire project will be delayed by one day (unless another activity on the critical path can be accelerated by one day).
Avoiding IT Project Failure: It's Really Not That Hard!
By Craig Dennis
Everybody thinks that their project is unique. Maybe that’s true but the underlying causes of project failure usually have lot in common. When you know what the causes are you can usually avoid them and maximise your chances of success.
Projects go wrong for the same reasons all the time. There are no new sins. We can look at a project in its first two months and know if it will be a success or not. — Nick Dean, Managing Director at Professional Values
So what do you need to do when faced with poor initiation, weak control, lack of staffing, risks, issues and unrealistic expectations?
Here’s five common trouble spots and tips to avoid them.
There may be external circumstances or events that must occur for the project to be successful (or that should happen to increase your chances of success). If you believe that the probability of the event occurring is acceptable, you could list it as an assumption.
An assumption has a probability between 0 and 100%. That is, it is not impossible that the event will occur (0%) and it is not a fact (100%). It is somewhere in between. Assumptions are important because they set the context in which the entire remainder of the project is defined.
If an assumption doesn't come through, the estimate and the rest of the project definition may no longer be valid.